Simulation Hypothesis References

Ananthaswamy, Anil

Do We Live in a Simulation? Chances Are about 50–50
Gauging whether or not we dwell inside someone else’s computer may come down to advanced AI research—or measurements at the frontiers of cosmology
By Anil Ananthaswamy
Writing for Scientific American
October 13, 2020

Beshears, Fred

The Brain-Computer Interface as Educational Technology

Building ancestral social simulations with intelligent agents
by Fred M Beshears

Reading List for the Digital Surveillance State, Surveillance Capitalism, the Persuasion Industry, and the Rise of SuperAI
by Fred M Beshears

Two case studies that illustrate why humans may want to live in a simulation

Bostrom, Nick

Are You Living In A Computer Simulation?
by Nick Bostrom
published: Philosophical Quarterly (2003) Vol. 53, No. 211, pp. 243-255 (First version: 2001)

Are You Living In A Computer Simulation?
by Nick Bostrom
classic version published 2001

Chalmers, David

David Chalmers on VR and AI
by Prashanth Ramakrishna

Over the past two decades, the philosopher David Chalmers has established himself as a leading thinker on consciousness. He began his academic career in mathematics but slowly migrated toward cognitive science and philosophy of mind. He eventually landed at Indiana University working under the guidance of Douglas Hofstadter, whose influential book “Gödel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid” had earned him a Pulitzer Prize. Chalmers’s dissertation, “Toward a Theory of Consciousness,” grew into his first book, “The Conscious Mind” (1996), which helped revive the philosophical conversation on consciousness. Perhaps his best-known contribution to philosophy is “the hard problem of consciousness” — the problem of explaining subjective experience, the inner movie playing in every human mind, which in Chalmers’s words will “persist even when the performance of all the relevant functions is explained.”

Chalmers is now writing a book on the problems of a technological future we are fast approaching: virtual reality, digitally uploaded consciousness, artificial intelligence and more. I met with David Chalmers in his office at New York University to discuss this future and how we might relate to it.

The Singularity: A Philosophical Analysis
by David J. Chalmers


Simulation and Gaming

Simulation and Gaming refers to a series of instructional designs that use elements from simulation and gaming. Simulation and Gaming can be done with board games, computer assisted board games, or fully computerized environments.

Simulation and gaming is particular popular in business education. According to Hall (2011), “”Total enterprise” simulations or management or business games. They date back to 1957 when a group at the Rand Corporation (Bellman et al, 1957) created what is perhaps the first computerised business game (simulation).”

The Simulation & Gaming journal defines Simulation/gaming in its broadest meaning, “to encompass such areas as simulation, computerized simulation, internet simulation, gaming, simulation/gaming, serious games, educational games, training games, e-games, internet games, video games, policy exercises, day-in-the-life simulations, planning exercises, debriefing, analytic discussion, post-experience analysis, modeling, virtual reality, game theory, role-play, role-playing, play, active learning, experiential learning, learning from experience, toys, augmented reality, playthings, structured exercises, education games, alternative purpose games, edutainment, digital game-based learning, immersive learning, brain games, social impact games, games for change, games for good, synthetic learning environments, synthetic task environments.” (retrieved April 12, 2010).

DSchneider believes that Role Play Simulations belong to the same category

According to Dumlekar (2004) in the context of “Management simulations”: “A simulation is a replica of reality. As a training program, it enables adult participants to learn through interactive experiences. Simulations contain elements of experiential learning and adult learning […] Simulations would therefore be useful to learn about complex situations (where data is incomplete, unreliable or unavailable), where the problems are unfamiliar, and where the cost of errors in making decisions is likely to be high. Therefore, simulations offer many benefits. They accelerate and compress time to offer a foresight of a hazy future. They are experimental, experiential, and rigorous. They promote creativity amongst the participants, who develop a shared view of their learning and behaviors. Above all, making decisions have no real-life cost implications.”.


A future ‘human brain/cloud interface’ will give people instant access to vast knowledge via thought alone
by Frontiers


Imagine a future technology that would provide instant access to the world’s knowledge and artificial intelligence, simply by thinking about a specific topic or question. Communications, education, work, and the world as we know it would be transformed.

Writing in Frontiers in Neuroscience, an international collaboration led by researchers at UC Berkeley and the US Institute for Molecular Manufacturing predicts that exponential progress in nanotechnology, nanomedicine, AI, and computation will lead this century to the development of a “Human Brain/Cloud Interface” (B/CI), that connects brain cells to vast cloud-computing networks in real time.

Nanobots on the brain

The B/CI concept was initially proposed by futurist-author-inventor Ray Kurzweil, who suggested that neural nanorobots – brainchild of Robert Freitas, Jr., senior author of the research – could be used to connect the neocortex of the human brain to a “synthetic neocortex” in the cloud. Our wrinkled neocortex is the newest, smartest, ‘conscious’ part of the brain.

Freitas’ proposed neural nanorobots would provide direct, real-time monitoring and control of signals to and from brain cells.

“These devices would navigate the human vasculature, cross the blood-brain barrier, and precisely autoposition themselves among, or even within brain cells,” explains Freitas. “They would then wirelessly transmit encoded information to and from a cloud-based supercomputer network for real-time brain-state monitoring and data extraction.”

Hammarstrom, Anders

I, Sim – The Simulation Argument
by Anders Hammarstrom
published 2008


Plato: The Allegory of the Cave


Science and the Simulation Hypothesis
5 Reasons We May Be In The Matrix
by ScientificInquirer
Mar 22, 2019

This year marks the 20th anniversary of the release of the groundbreaking film, The Matrix. The movie was influential in many ways – the incredible special effects, the no holds barred action, etc., but like some movies before it, it has gone on to become a cultural phenomenon because of its philosophy. The Matrix is perhaps the most popular incarnation of what we now call “the simulation hypothesis” – which is the idea that we are all living in a giant shared online video game.

Tobias, Scott

‘Westworld’ Season 1, Episode 2: If You Can’t Tell, Does It Matter?
by Scott Tobias

From the moment William shuttles to the park terminal, where he’s greeted by a beautiful woman in a skintight uniform (think the outfits in Robert Palmer’s “Addicted to Love” video, but in white) he struggles to gain his bearings, as any normal person would. The host leads him into a gallery, where he can choose his custom-fitted Old West garments, his guns and, finally, the color of his hat. (He picks cowboy white. His friend turns up in outlaw black.)

The host makes it clear that she’s sexually available to him, but not before William begins to ask the uncomfortable question about whether she’s real or not. She cuts him off: “Well, if you can’t tell, does it matter?” It sounds like a rhetorical question, but it doesn’t satisfy William, who politely rebuffs her advances. The truth is, it matters a great deal if the people William and the other guests encounter are real or not, because otherwise they won’t care who they violate. If they can’t tell the difference, they’re essentially shooting first and asking questions later. They have to decide to harm someone before they can know whether their actions are permitted or not. This a moral gray zone, to put it mildly.

Westworld Season 1 – Episode Clip: Welcome to Westworld

Well if you can’t tell, does it matter?

Watts, Alan

If God Became Bored
by Alan Watts

Woodward, Aylin

‘The Matrix’ hit theaters 20 years ago. Many scientists and philosophers still think we’re living in a simulation.
by Aylin Woodward


A Nice Place to Visit
Episode 28 of The Twilight Zone
by Wikipedia

The title comes from the saying, “A nice place to visit, but I wouldn’t want to live there.”

Opening Narration:
Portrait of a man at work, the only work he’s ever done, the only work he knows. His name is Henry Francis Valentine, but he calls himself “Rocky”, because that’s the way his life has been – rocky and perilous and uphill at a dead run all the way. He’s tired now, tired of running or wanting, of waiting for the breaks that come to others but never to him, never to Rocky Valentine.
A scared, angry little man. He thinks it’s all over now but he’s wrong. For Rocky Valentine, it’s just the beginning.

Closing Narration:
A scared, angry little man who never got a break. Now he has everything he’s ever wanted – and he’s going to have to live with it for eternity – in The Twilight Zone.

After robbing a pawn shop, Henry Francis “Rocky” Valentine (Larry Blyden) is shot by a police officer as he tries to flee. He wakes up to find himself seemingly unharmed by the encounter as a genial elderly man named Pip (Sebastian Cabot) greets him. Pip explains that he has been instructed to guide Rocky and give him whatever he desires. Rocky becomes suspicious, thinking that Pip is trying to swindle him, but Pip proves to have detailed information on Rocky’s tastes and hobbies. Rocky demands that Pip hand over his wallet; Pip says that he does not carry one, but gives Rocky $700 directly from his pocket and says that he can provide as much money as Rocky wants.

Thinking that Pip is trying to entice him to commit a crime, Rocky holds him at gunpoint as the two travel to a luxurious apartment. Pip explains that the apartment and everything in it are free, and Rocky starts to relax. However, his suspicions rise up again when a meal is brought in, and he demands that Pip taste it first to prove that it is not poisoned. When Pip demurs, claiming he has not eaten for centuries, Rocky shoots him in the head, but sees that the bullets have no effect. Rocky realizes that he is dead, and he concludes that he is in Heaven and Pip is his guardian angel.

Rocky visits a casino, winning every bet he makes as beautiful girls gather around him, and enjoys being able to torment a policeman after Pip shrinks him. Later, Rocky asks Pip if he can see some of his old friends who have also died, but Pip says that this world is for Rocky alone. Except for the two men, no one in it is real. When Rocky wonders what good deeds he could have done to gain entrance to Heaven, Pip takes him to visit the Hall of Records. Rocky looks through his own file and discovers that it only contains a list of his sins, but decides not to worry about it.

One month later, Rocky has become bored with having his whims instantly satisfied. He calls Pip and asks for a challenge in which he might run the risk of losing. Pip offers to set up a bank robbery, but Rocky abandons the idea, saying that a pre-planned outcome would take the fun out of the crime. He then tells Pip that he is tired of Heaven and wants to go to “the other place,” to which Pip retorts, “Heaven? Whatever gave you the idea you were in Heaven, Mr. Valentine? This is the other place!” Horrified, Rocky tries in vain to open the now-locked apartment door and escape his “paradise” as Pip laughs malevolently at his torment.

Allegory of the Cave

The Matrix

Simulation Hypothesis
by Wikipedia

Star Trek: The Next Generation
Elementary, Dear Data
by Wikipedia,_Dear_Data

“Elementary, Dear Data” is the third episode of the second season of the American science fiction television series Star Trek: The Next Generation, the 29th episode overall. It was written by Brian Alan Lane and directed by Rob Bowman. It was originally released on December 5, 1988, in broadcast syndication.

Set in the 24th century, the series follows the adventures of the crew of the Federation starship Enterprise. In this episode, a holographic adversary is created on the holodeck of the Enterprise (1701D) when Data and Geordi take some time off to play a Sherlock Holmes game. The plot line from this episode was continued in the sixth season episode “Ship in a Bottle”.

As the Federation starship Enterprise, under the command of Captain Jean-Luc Picard, waits to rendezvous with the USS Victory, Chief Engineer La Forge and Commander Data go to the Holodeck to recreate a Sherlock Holmes mystery. Data, playing Holmes, has memorized all of the Holmes stories, and recognizes and solves the mystery within minutes. Frustrated, Geordi leaves the holodeck, leaving Data confused. In Ten Forward, Geordi explains that the fun is in solving the unknown; Data does not understand. Overhearing their conversation, Chief Medical Officer Dr. Pulaski asserts that Data is incapable of solving a mystery to which he does not already know the outcome. Data accepts Dr. Pulaski’s challenge and invites her to join them on the Holodeck. There, Geordi instructs the computer to create a unique Sherlock Holmes mystery with an adversary who is capable of defeating Data.

Star Trek: The Next Generation
Ship in a Bottle
by Wikipedia

“Ship in a Bottle” is the 138th episode of the American science fiction television series Star Trek: The Next Generation, the 12th episode of the sixth season. In this episode, which continued a plot line from the second-season episode “Elementary, Dear Data”, the fictional holodeck character Professor James Moriarty seizes control of the Enterprise in his quest to be freed to live in reality, outside the confines of a holographic environment.

Data and La Forge are enjoying a Sherlock Holmes holodeck program when the two notice that a character programmed to be left-handed was actually right-handed. They call Lt. Barclay to repair the holodeck, but as he checks the status of the Sherlock Holmes programs, he encounters an area of protected memory. He activates it to find the artificial sentient Professor James Moriarty (Daniel Davis) character projected into the Holodeck, who appears to have memory since his creation (“Elementary, Dear Data”), including during the period while he was inactive (a feat Picard claims to be impossible). Moriarty again wishes to escape the artificial world of the holodeck and was assured by the crew of the Enterprise that they would endeavor to find a way to do so, and is irritated at the lack of results on the part of the crew and their seeming lack of effort. Picard, along with Data and Barclay, attempts to assure Moriarty they are still working towards this goal but their technology does not yet permit it. Moriarty is dismissive.

Moriarty confuses the crew by seemingly willing himself to existence by walking out of the holodeck door. He explains this to the stunned Picard and Data by saying, “I think, therefore I am.” Moriarty creates a companion for himself, the Countess Regina Bartholomew (Stephanie Beacham), by commanding the computer of the Enterprise to place another sentient mind within a female character of the Sherlock Holmes novels. Moriarty then demands that a solution to get Regina off the holodeck be devised. He takes control of the Enterprise through the computer, insisting that a way be found for her to experience life beyond the confines of the holodeck.

While assisting La Forge, Data observes that La Forge’s handedness is incorrect, just as they had experienced earlier. Data determines that he, Picard, and Barclay are still inside the holodeck with Moriarty and everyone else and everything that appears to be the Enterprise is part of a program Moriarty created. Picard then realizes that he has unwittingly provided Moriarty with the command codes for the Enterprise. With this information, Moriarty takes control of the real Enterprise from within the simulation.

Captain Picard finds a way to program the holodeck’s simulation of a holodeck to convince Moriarty that he and Regina can be beamed into the real world, though in fact they are only “beamed” within the holodeck’s simulation. Moriarty, satisfied with the ruse, releases control of the ship back to Picard. He and the Countess use a shuttlecraft given to them by Commander Riker to leave the Enterprise and explore the galaxy. Picard ends the simulation and the trio return to the real Enterprise. Barclay extracts the memory cube from the holodeck and sets it in an extended memory device in order to provide Moriarty and the Countess a lifetime of exploration and adventure.

Picard comments that the crew’s reality may actually be a fabrication generated by “a little device sitting on someone’s table.” This unnerves Barclay enough for him to test the nature of his own reality one more time: he gives an audible command to “end program” to test whether he is still in a simulation. There is no response.

The Truman Show
1998 Science Fiction Comedy Starring Jim Carrey as Truman Burbank
by Wikipedia

Virtual Reality
by Wikipedia

by Wikipedia

by Wikipedia

Wirehead is a term used in science fiction works to denote different kinds of interaction between people and technology. The typical wirehead idea is that of a wire going into a human’s brain and safe amounts of electricity applied to the wire-conductor to directly interact with the brain, or the specific “pleasure centers” of the brain.

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