NATO Members and Former Communist States as of 2020

Communist Countries in Europe and Central Asia

Note: countries marked with a ‘*’ are now part of NATO as of 2020.

Countries that made up the USSR in 1989
  1. Armenia
  2. Azerbaijan
  3. Belarus
  4. Estonia*
  5. Georgia
  6. Kazakhstan
  7. Kyrgyzstan
  8. Latvia*
  9. Lithuania*
  10. Moldova
  11. Russia
  12. Tajikistan
  13. Turkmenistan
  14. Ukraine
  15. Uzbekistan

Founding Members of the Warsaw Pact
  1. Albania*
  2. Bulgaria*
  3. Czechoslovakia (i.e. now Czech Republic* and Slovakia*)
  4. East Germany*
  5. Hungary*
  6. Poland*
  7. Romania*
  8. Soviet Union (USSR)

Countries that made up Yugoslavia
  1. Bosnia and Herzegovina
  2. Croatia*
  3. Macedonia (now North Macedonia*)
  4. Montenegro*
  5. Serbia (including Kosovo and Vojvodina)
  6. Slovenia*

Former Communist States
in Europe and Central Asia
that are not in NATO as of 2020

  1. Armenia
  2. Azerbaijan
  3. Belarus
  4. Bosnia and Herzegovina
  5. Georgia
  6. Kazakhstan
  7. Kosovo
  8. Kyrgyzstan
  9. Moldova
  10. Russia
  11. Serbia
  12. Tajikistan
  13. Turkmenistan
  14. Ukraine
  15. Uzbekistan

NATO countries as of 2020

Countries added to NATO from 1990 to 2020

Note that all of these countries were once part of either:
a) the USSR, b) the Warsaw Pact, or c) Yugoslavia.

  1. East Germany (1990)
  2. Hungary (1997)
  3. Czech Republic (1997)
  4. Poland (1997)
  5. Bulgaria (2004)
  6. Estonia (2004)
  7. Latvia (2004)
  8. Lithuania (2004)
  9. Romania (2004)
  10. Slovakia (2004)
  11. Slovenia (2004)
  12. Albania (2009)
  13. Croatia (2009)
  14. Montenegro (2017)
  15. North Macedonia (2020)

Countries added to NATO from 1950 to 1989
  1. Greece (1952)
  2. Turkey (1952)
  3. West Germany (1955)
  4. Spain (1982)

Founding members of NATO in 1949
  1. Belgium
  2. Canada
  3. Denmark
  4. France
  5. Iceland
  6. Italy
  7. Luxembourg
  8. the Netherlands
  9. Norway
  10. Portugal
  11. the United Kingdom
  12. the United States


Anon, Anon

Timeline of NATO expansion since 1949
by The Associated Press
10 May 2022

Beshears, Fred M.

The Great Delusion of Liberal Hegemony
by Fred M. Beshears

These are my notes on a video of lecture given by John Mearsheimer on 21 January 2019.

Chotiner, Isaac

Why John Mearsheimer Blames the U.S. for the Crisis in Ukraine
For years, the political scientist has claimed that Putin’s aggression toward Ukraine is caused by Western intervention. Have recent events changed his mind?
Interview of John Mearsheimer by Isaac Chotiner
1 March 2022

Hall, Gavin E L

Ukraine: the history behind Russia’s claim that NATO promised not to expand to the east
by Gavin E L Hall
14 February 2022

FMB Note: Also see John Mearsheimer’s answer to this question in references below.

  • Video Title: Who armed Ukraine and decided to expand NATO?
  • Segment to see: 17:06 Did NATO promise not to expand to the east?

Mearsheimer, John

Who armed Ukraine and decided to expand NATO?
Professor John Mearsheimer
7 April 2022

00:00 UK, Germany and France do they have a role in Ukraine vs Russia war?
01:42 Does the EU or Nato have a role in Ukraine vs Russia war?
04:57 Who decided to expand NATO?
07:39 Are we moving from an US Unipole to Multipolar world?
10:28 Is China a threat to Russia?
12:14 Can Ukraine, as a buffer state, lead to peace?
17:06 Did Nato promise not to expand to the east?
19:40 Who decided to arm Ukraine?
23:49 Why do Europeans and Americans hate Russians so much?
26:40 Can liberal international order with USA on top survive?
30:14 Does Putin suffer from a personality disorder?
32:02 Nato needs Russia and its threats to continue its existence?
36:30 Does having nuclear weapons lessen wars?

Why the Ukraine Cannot Decide Its Own Future
John Mearsheimer
8 April 2022

00:00 | Why Ukraine cannot decide its own future!
01:01 | How did we get into this mess in Ukraine?
01:45 | Is Putin looking to recreate the USSR?
03:03 | Does Putin consider NATO expansion as an existential threat?
04:17 | Does Russia want to make Ukraine part of Russia?
05:38 | What are the Americans doing in Ukraine?
07:31 | Can there be a negotiated settlement in Ukraine?
08:13 | Is it possible the US will join the war in Ukraine?
09:29 | Could Russia turn to nuclear weapons?
12:02 | Does Ukraine not decide its own future?
13:48 | Is NATO expansion a good thing?
14:39 | Ukraine President Zelenskyy wants peace with Russia?
17:12 | Russians are targeting civilians in Ukraine?
17:48 | What is Putin thinking, what are his plans?
19:24 | Is Russia looking to occupy Ukraine?

Why the Ukraine Crisis Is the West’s Fault
The Liberal Delusions That Provoked Putin
By John J. Mearsheimer
1 October 2014

Why is Ukraine the West’s Fault?
By John Mearsheimer
25 September 2015 (posted to YouTube on this date)

UnCommon Core:
The Causes and Consequences of the Ukraine Crisis
John J. Mearsheimer
Alumni Weekend
June 4-7, 2015

John J. Mearsheimer, the R. Wendell Harrison Distinguished Service Professor in Political Science and Co-director of the Program on International Security Policy at the University of Chicago, assesses the causes of the present Ukraine crisis, the best way to end it, and its consequences for all of the main actors. A key assumption is that in order to come up with the optimum plan for ending the crisis, it is essential to know what caused the crisis. Regarding the all-important question of causes, the key issue is whether Russia or the West bears primary responsibility.


Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances

Collective Security Treaty Organization (CTSO)

Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)

Eurasian Economic Community (EAEC)

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)


Warsaw Pact



Of the “Former Communist States in Europe and Central Asia that are not in NATO as of 2020” five countries [Armenia • Belarus • Kazakhstan • Kyrgyzstan • Tajikistan] are members of the Collective Security Treaty Organization [CTSO] together with Russia. Earlier this year Russia sent troops into Kazakhstan to “restore order”.

Together with Russia eight countries [Armenia • Azerbaijan • Belarus • Kazakhstan • Kyrgyzstan • Moldova • Tajikistan • Uzbekistan] are members of the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS], there is one associate state [Turkmenistan] and there are two observer states [Afghanistan • Mongolia]. Two countries [Ukraine • Georgia] left the CIS due to conflicts with Russia.

Five countries [Belarus • Kazakhstan • Kyrgyzstan • Tajikistan] were members of the now defunct Eurasian Economic Community [EAEC] together with Russia, before EAECs demise one member country [Uzbekistan] had been suspended.

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